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Machine translation


Darbas anglų kalba apie kompiuterinį vertimą. Introduction. The history of machine translation. Before the computer. The pioneers, 1947-1954. The decade of optimism, 1954-1966. The aftermath of the ALPAC report, 1966-1980. The 1980s. The early 1990s. The late 1990s. Machine translation engines. Basic machine translation systems. Direct translation. Interlingua based MT. Transfer-based MT. Corpus-based MT. Statistics-based MT. Example-based MT. Grammar-based machine translation. Knowledge-based MT. Memory-based machine translation. Hybrid System. Principles-based MT. Dialogue-based MT. Comparison of human and machine translation. Problems, which machine translation faces. Prospects of machine translation. Conclusions. Appendix.


Machine translation between human languages is a long-term scientific dream of enormous social, political, and scientific importance. It was one of the earliest applications suggested for digital computers, but turning this dream to reality has turned out to be a much harder, and in many ways a much more interesting task than at first appeared. Though there remain many unsolved problems, some degree of machine translation is now a daily reality, and it is likely that during the next decade the volume of routine technical and business translation will be done with some kind of translation tool, from humble database containing canned translations and technical terms to genuine Machine Translation System that can produce reasonable draft translations.
The use of MT – or any sort of computerized tool for translation support – is completely unknown to the majority of individuals and organizations in the world, even those involved in the so called "language industries", like translators, terminologists, technical writers.
According to D.J. Arnold ((D.J. Arnold, 1994: iii, 1, 4, 5), machine translation is important socially, politically, commercially, scientifically and philosophically.
The social and political importance of MT arises from the socio-political importance of translation in communities where more than one language is generally spoken. "Lingua franca" is not an attractive alternative, because the chosen language dominates in it, and the other languages are becoming second-class, and ultimately disappearing. So translation is necessary for communication – for ordinary human interaction, and for gathering the information one needs to play a full part in society. Being allowed to express yourself in your language, and to receive information that directly affects you in the same level, seems to be an important and right. And it is the one that depends on the availability of translation. The problem is that the demand for translation in the modern world outstrips any possible supply. Part of the problem is that there are too few human translators, and that there is a limit on how far their productivity can increase without automation. In short, it seems as though machine translation is a social and political necessity for modern societies which do not wish to impose a common language on their members.
The commercial importance of MT is a result of related factors. First, translation itself is commercially important: faced with a choice between a product with an instruction manual in English, and one whose manual is written in Japanese, most English speakers will buy the former – and in the case of a repair manual for a piece of manufacturing machinery or the manual for a safety critical system, this is not just a matter of taste. Secondly, translation is expensive. Translation is a highly skilled job, requiring much more than mere knowledge of a number of languages, and in some countries at least, translators’ salaries are comparable to other highly trained professionals. Producing high quality translations of difficult material, a professional translator may average no more than about 4-6 pages of translation (2000 words) per day, and it is quite easy for delays in translating product documentation to erode the market lead time of a new product.
Scientifically, MT is interesting, because it is an obvious application and testing ground for many ideas in Computer science, Artificial Intelligence, and Linguistics, and some of the most important developments in these fields have begun in MT. To illustrate this: the origins of Prolog, the first widely available logic programming language, which formed a key part of the Japanese ‘Fifth Generation’ program of research in the late 1980s, can be found in the ‘Q-System’ language, originally developed for MT. ...

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Tinklalapyje paskelbta2006-01-27
DalykasInformatikos kursinis darbas
TipasKursiniai darbai
Apimtis26 puslapiai 
Literatūros šaltiniai17
KalbaAnglų kalba
Dydis39.62 KB
Viso autoriaus darbų1 darbas
Metai2006 m
Švietimo institucijaKauno Technologijos Universitetas
Failo pavadinimasMicrosoft Word Machine translation [speros.lt].doc

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  • Kursiniai darbai
  • 26 puslapiai 
  • Kauno Technologijos Universitetas / 3 Klasė/kursas
  • 2006 m
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